1996-2001 of release
Repair and operation of the car
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.2. Information before driving of the car
+ 1.3. Independent maintenance
+ 1.4. Technical characteristics
+ 1.5. Several councils upon purchase of the car
+ 2. Maintenance
- 3. Engines
+ 3.1.2. Check of a compression
+ 3.2. 6-cylinder two-row V6 3,0 engines of l
- 3.3. Partition of engines
22.214.171.124. 6-cylinder two-row engines
3.3.2. Capital repairs of the engine – general comments
3.3.3. Diagnostics of the engine by means of the vacuum gage
3.3.4. Capital repairs of the engine – an alternative
3.3.5. Auxiliary elements of the engine
3.3.6. Removal and installation of the engine
3.3.7. Engine partition
3.3.8. Head of cylinders and valves
3.3.9. Balancing device (4-cylinder engine)
3.3.10. Pistons and rods
3.3.11. Bent shaft
3.3.12. Block of cylinders
3.3.13. Honingovaniye of cylinders
3.3.14. Radical bearings and bearings of rods
3.3.15. Measurement of size of a free wheeling of the balancing device
3.3.16. Piston rings
3.3.17. Radical bearings of a bent shaft
3.3.18. Back epiploon of a bent shaft
3.3.19. Conrod bearings
3.3.20. Installation of the balancing device of the engine
3.3.21. It is rather live, than is dead …
3.3.22. Analysis of smoke of an exhaust
3.3.23. A gear belt for the gas distribution mechanism drive
3.3.24. Emergence in deposit oil
3.3.25. Engine overheat
+ 3.4. Engine electric equipment
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmission
+ 9. Running gear
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Body
+ 12. Electric equipment
The simplified lubrication system formula двигатедя, the providing durability and its economic work sounds so: Pressure, Level and Quality!
First, pressure. All know well that oil pressure in the engine constantly has to be controlled during the movement of the car by means of regular devices – a control lamp or also the arrow electric manometer.
Pressure has to be not less than 0,5 Bars at the minimum turns of idling (the control lamp does not burn or blinks) and no more than 4,5 Bars with a high frequency of rotation of a shaft of the engine. If at the working engine the control lamp of emergency pressure of oil suddenly lit up or the arrow of the electric manometer fell to zero – immediately switch off the engine, stop in the safe place and find the reason of this phenomenon.
It is the best of all to check presence of pressure in the lubrication system by means of the model manometer twirled to the place of the sensor. If it is absent near at hand – for example, breakage happened on the way, then it is necessary to check whether there was an oil in the engine pallet, and then – whether the conductor going from pressure sensor broke. When also a wire on the place, and oil is on the probe – unscrew the sensor of pressure and, having closed an opening of the trunk oil main, ask the assistant to start the engine. If at the working engine oil does not follow from the trunk oil main under pressure – it is necessary to check and repair the drive of the pump or a maslozabornik. But it is a subject of a separate conversation. It is necessary to remember the main thing – operation of the engine without the corresponding pressure of oil is forbidden! Will be to reach to HUNDRED on the tow cheaper. If after start of the engine oil follows from the trunk main under pressure, then the showing system is faulty.
Check of operability of the showing device
At the included ignition to disconnect a wire from the sensor and to touch them "mass" of the car. If the device is serviceable, the arrow will deviate on the maximum value of pressure or the control lamp will light up.
Check of operability of the sensor of pressure
To unscrew the sensor, to press its case to "weight", without removing the conductor. The pump or the compressor for inflating of wheels to create pressure in the oil highway of the sensor and at the included ignition to watch an arrow deviation. If the arrow of the electric manometer of pressure of oil deviates in proportion to change of pressure of air, then the showing system is serviceable. At the faulty showing system it is possible to reach only to the next HUNDRED provided that you were convinced available pressure of the lubrication system.
The second component is the level of oil.
It is desirable to check oil level daily, in any case at least, than through 500 km of a run. On the cold engine level has to be between tags of "min" and "max". The deviation these borders is inadmissible.
Change of level of oil – important diagnostic parameter. If, for example, it is necessary to add no more than 0,5 m of oil on 1000 km of a run to Zhiguli, then a condition of the engine fine. A standard cost for these engines – to 0,8 l on 1000 km, at much bigger expense – look for the reason. Most often it is leakage of the lubrication system, wear of the condensing elements of the gas-distributing mechanism (epiploons, the directing plugs of valves), malfunction of system of ventilation of a case or wear of tsilindroporshnevy group.
That is, the oil level decreases quicker, the condition of the engine is worse. In this case oil should be added. Never mix different oils, even the most well-known companies – it can have undesirable consequences. It is possible to pass to other brand (firm), but before it wash out the engine and already further use oil only of this brand.
Sometimes level does not decrease, and on the contrary, increases. It is a bad sign as oil level only in two cases can increase: at emergence in the pallet of a case of the engine of cooling liquid or fuel. Both it is extremely undesirable.
Emergence on the probe of a foamy emulsion of yellow and whitish color indicates availability of cooling liquid in oil and, as a rule, need of repair of the engine. The same emulsion in a jellied mouth, under a cover of the gas-distributing mechanism or in a ventilating tube of a case is formed at short trips to cold season and is not a sign of malfunction of the engine. During the long operation of the engine in normal temperature condition the specified phenomenon is not observed, that is the emulsion independently disappears under the influence of high temperature.
If oil level considerably increased, it became liquid with a fuel smell, then the reason in low-quality fuel, idle candles or in malfunction of a fuel supply system. It is necessary to change oil, but previously to find and remove the cause of increase in its level.
And the third component is a quality of oil.
It is clear, that such engine oil which answers on an index of viscosity and indicators of quality to the concrete engine is qualitative.
Externally fresh oil has to be yellow or light brown without any rainfall. And what to do with a deposit if it is in company canisters: to mix and fill in diligently in the engine, or to fill in only a light part of oil, having left a deposit (by the way, this question often occurred in letters of readers)? Neither that, nor another!!! Just do not buy the oil having a deposit. Its existence is an indicator of low-quality oil. The deposit of gray, yellow colors or their shades is formed in the presence of water. The deposit dark to black flowers appears at excess of a period of storage of oil (that is over 5 years) or at low-quality purification of basic oil.
The deposit can be seen if the canister translucent and long time is motionless. In all other cases availability of water in oil and, therefore, its unfitness to use in the engine, it is possible to define very simply and quickly. It is necessary to pour an oil half-test tube, to heat it to temperature of 100 °C. Emergence on the surface of oil of exchange indicates availability of water in it.
Presence of mechanical impurity can approximately be defined, having dripped oils on the filtering paper. If after drying there was a light yellow spot – oil pure. If yellowish or, even worse, a grayish spot with the dark edging on perimeter – oil has a large amount of mechanical impurity. It in case you buy fresh, new oil. And that which already worked in the engine should be replaced when when checking the gray spot is less than width of the black edging on its perimeter in the middle.
The most difficult is check on availability of additives in oil. For this purpose it is necessary to gain in pure dry heat-resistant glasswares 50–70 g of oil and as much the distilled water in which 3–4 g of a fenolftalein are dissolved. Then the container with oil and solution of a fenolftalein is put in a pan with water, heated to boiling, from time to time mixing mix. After boiling of water allow all "bath" to cool down to room temperature. If water solution in oil became reddish (crimson) – that additives are, oil normal. In all other cases – oil low-quality, without additives.